Government of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu district derives its name from the city of jammu which besides being the winter capital of the state, is known as the city of temples. It is believed that the city was originally founded by Raja Jamboo Lochan who lived in fourteenth century B.C. The Raja had gone out one day hunting when he happened to witness a tiger and a goat drinking water from one of the same pond. This extraordinary phenomenon set him thinking and he decided to build a city at this site so that the strong and weak could live together in peace and mutual tolerance. Eventually, he founded the city which came to be known as "Jamboo" after his own name. With the passage of time and due to its frequent use the pronunciation of the name got slightly distorted and the city came to be known as 'Jammu' as it is called now. Jammu is situated on a hillock, on the bank of river Tawi and is bounded by Udhampur district in the north and north-east, Kathua district in the east and south-east, Pakistan (Sialkote) in the west and Rajouri district and POK (Bhimber) in the north-west. Jammu is located 740 24' and 750 18', East longitude and 320 50' and 330 30' North latitude. It is approximately 600 kms away from National Capital New Delhi and is linked with a National Highway. The temperature varies from cold in winter with minimum temperature touching even 0.9 degree centigrade to heat wave in summers when the temperature shoots up to 46 degree celsius. Jammu district is spread over an area of 3097 sq kms and has a population of about 13.57 lakhs as per 2001 census. It is largest populated district of the state and second largest in terms of population density which falls under the category 'B'. The literacy percentage of the district is 77% which is highest in the state according to 201 census. Administratively the district has been divided into 4 tehsils, 8 blocks including one municipality, 1192 villages and 297 panchayats. The district is having a National Airport situated at satwari. This district serves as the winter capital of J&K state fro November to April when all offices move from Srinagar to Jammu. The district is bounded in the north and north east by the Tehsils of Reasi in the east and south east partly by Ramnagar of Udhampur district and partly by tehsil Billawar of Kathua district, in the south and south west by Kathua district and Sialkot district of Pakistan and in the north west by tehsil Nowshera of district Rajouri. District Jammu falls in sub-mountainous region at the foothills of the Himalayas. Shivalik range rises gradually in the north part of the district and merges with Indo-Gangetic plains in the south. Jammu city is at an elevation of 1030 feet above the sea level. The district comprises four tehsils Jammu, R S Pura, Akhnoor and Bishnah. The entire district can be divided into two distinct portions. The area forming north of Jammu-Chamb road and Jammu-Pathankot road which is known as Kandi area and is comparatively under developed and is mostly rainfed. The area south of these roads is largely fed by canal and tube wells for irrigation purposes and is relatively more prospsperous.